Biochemistry-I includes basic biochemical information about the structures, properties, functions, and relationships of organic compounds such as proteins, carbohydrates, lipids, nucleic acids, enzymes, and minerals, which constitute the basic building blocks of organisms essential for the maintenance of life.

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1. Introduction to Biochemistry, and Biophysical Chemistry-I

Contents: Introduction to Biochemistry (Description and subjects of Biochemistry, the Biochemical reactions in the cell) and Biophysical Chemistry-I (Water and Biological Importance, Metabolism of Water, Diffusion, Osmosis, Dialysis, Surface tension, Adsorption).

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2. Biophysical Chemistry-II

Contents: Solutions, Molar and Equivalent concentrations, Percentage Solutions, pH, Amphoterism, Buffers

Subheadings: Disperse systems, protective colloids, hydrogen ion concentration, bicarbonate buffer, phosphate buffer, isotopes and their biochemical importance, hazards of radiation.

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3. Bioelements-I

Content: Macro-Elements

Subheadings: Calcium (Ca – Milk fever), Phosphorus (P), Magnesium (Mg – Grass Staggers), Potassium (K-Hypokalemia syndrome), Sodium (Na), Chlorine (Cl), Sulfur (S).

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4. Bioelements-II

Contents: Micro-elements/Trace elements

Subheadings: Iron (Fe – Catalase, Hemoglobin, Transferrin, Ferritin, Microcytic hypochromic anaemia), Copper (Cu – Ceruloplasmin, Enzootic ataxia, Wilson’s disease), Cobalt (Co – Cobalamin, Macrocytic anaemia), Zinc (Zn – SOD), Manganese (Mn), Chromium (Cr – Glucose tolerance factor), Molybdenum (Mo – Xanthine oxidase), Fluorine (F – Fluorosis), Selenium (Se – White muscle disease, Glutathione peroxidase [GPx]), Iodine (I – Goiter).

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5. Carbohydrates-I

Contents: Definition and Importance of Carbohydrates, Classification of Carbohydrates, Monosaccharides (Glucose, Fructose, Galactose, Ribose), Configuration, and Conformation.

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6. Carbohydrates-II

Contents: General Reactions of Monosaccharides, Derivative Monosaccharides, and Disaccharides.

Subheadings: Amino sugars (glucosamine, galactosamine), amino sugar acids (neuraminic acid, N-acetyl neuraminic acid, sialic acid, mumaric acid), deoxy sugars (deoxyribose, rhamnose, fucose), sugar alcohols (sorbitol, glycerol, mannitol, dulcitol, erythritol), sugar acids (gluconic acid, glucuronic acid); Disaccharides: Glycoside bonds, sucrose, maltose, cellobiose, lactose, trehalose.

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7. Carbohydrates-III

Contents: Polysaccharides (Glycans)

Subheadings: Homopolysaccharides (Starch; amylose-amylopectin, glycogen, cellulose, inulin, chitin, dextrin, dextran, pectin, agar-agar), heteropolysaccharides (hyaluronic acid, chondroitin sulfates, blood group substances, heparin, gum arabic, murein).

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8. Lipids-I

Contents: Definition of Lipids and Functions, Classification, Fatty acids

Subheadings: Free Fatty Acids-NEFA, Saturated-Unsaturated Fatty Acids, Essential Fatty Acids), Nomenclature (IUPAC, Trivial), Numbering (COOH and Omega-ω), Classification, Essential Fatty Acids (Linoleic acid), Physical and Chemical Properties (Salt formation, Saponification, Detergent, Ester formation, Hydrogenation, Adding halogen to double bond, Oxidation, Peroxidation).

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9. Lipids-II

ontent: Lipids carrying Glycerine

Subheadings: Glycerine (Glycerol), Neutral Lipids (Mono-, di- and triglycerides [Animal Fats and Vegetable Oils], Saponification Number, Iodine Number, Acetyl Number, Acid Number, Essential Fatty Acid Number/Reichart Number, Bitterness, Glycerine Ethers, Glucosylglycerins), Phosphoglycerides (Phosphatides [lecithin, cephalin, phosphatidylserine, plasmalogens, platelet-activating factor-PAF], Diphosphatidylglycerine [Cardiolipin] and Phosphotidilinositols).

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10. Lipids-III

Contents: Glycerine-Free Lipids, Lipids linked to other class of compounds) 

Subheadings: Sphingolipids (Sphingosine, Ceramides, Sphingomyelins, Glycosphingolipids [Cerebrosides, Sulfatides, Globocytes/Ceramide Oligosaccharides, Gangliosides]), Aliphatic Alcohols and Waxes (Beeswax, Carnauba, Spermatozoa, Spermenacetum wax, Lanolin), Terpenes, Steroids (Sterane ring, Sterols [Zoosterols (Cholesterol, Lanosterol), Mycosterols, Phytosterols], Bile Acids, Steroid Hormones, Vitamin D).
Lipids linked to other class compounds: Lipoproteins (Chylomicrons, VLDL, IDL, LDL, HDL), Eicosanoids (Prostaglandins, Thromboxanes, Prostacyclines, Leukotrienes, Lipoxins), Lysophosphoglycerides, Lipopolysaccharides.

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11. Amino acids, Peptides, and Proteins-I

Contents: Amino Acids and Classification, Structure of Amino Acids, Essential and Non-Protein Amino Acids, General reactions of Amino Acids, Peptide Bond and Peptides.

Subheadings: D- and L-Forms, Classification, Modified Amino Acids, Physical and Chemical Properties; Peptides: Peptide Bond, Oligo- and Polypeptides, Some important di-, oligo- and polypeptides, Separations and quantification of amino acids in proteins.

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12. Amino acids, Peptides, and Proteins-II

Contents: Classification of Proteins, Properties of Proteins, Solubility of Proteins, Denaturation, Primer, Secondary, Tertiary, Quaternary Structures of Protein Molecules

Subheadings: Classification (According to their Structure: Simple-Conjugated-Derivative Proteins; Functionally: Catalytic Proteins, Carrier Proteins [transport proteins], Nutrient and Storage Proteins, Contractile Proteins, Structural Proteins, Defense Proteins, Physiological Regulatory Proteins).

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13. Amino acids, Peptides, and Proteins-III

Contents: Nucleoproteins [Nucleic acids (Nucleosides, Nucleotides and Polynucleotides, Primer Structure of Nucleic Acids and Conformations, Functions and Metabolisms of Nucleic Acids, Replication, Transcription, Translation], Chromoproteins, Bile pigments, Major Proteins of Body Fluids and Tissues.

Subheadings: DNA, RNA, ATP, Porphyrins, Icterus (Jaundice).

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14. Enzymes

Contents: Structures and General Properties of Enzymes, Terminology and Definitions, Classification and Nomenclature of Enzymes, Principles of Enzyme Kinetics, Factors Which Affects Activity of Enzyme, Control of Enzyme Activity, Enzymology in Veterinary Medicine

Subheadings: History, Location, Specificity, Enzyme Catalysis, Inhibitors and Activators, Coenzymes.

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Laboratory Practice Documents

1. Laboratory Safety and Cleaning

Contents: Rules to be followed in biochemistry laboratories.

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2. Basic Laboratory Glassware and Equipment

Contents: Introduction of basic laboratory consumables, equipment, and instruments.

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3. Solutions

Contents: Solution problems; Preparation of Solutions: Percent, Molar and Normal (Equivalence) Solutions.

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4. Collecting Serum and Plasma

Contents: Collecting Serum and Plasma

Subheadings: Blood, blood collection tubes, anticoagulants, serum and plasma separation and difference, centrifugal.

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5. Experiments on Carbohydrates

Contents: Experiments on Carbohydrates.

Subheadings: Moore, fehling, benedict, barfoed, furfural, molisch, naphtol, seliwanoff, bial, aniline, sucrose, hydrolysis, ozazone, amylodextrin, erythrodextrin, acrodextrin, fermentation.

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6. Experiments on Lipids

Contents: Experiments on Lipids

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7. Experiments on Amino Acids and Proteins

7. Experiments on Amino Acids and Proteins

Contents: Experiments on Amino Acids and Proteins

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Edited on: 1 March 2023
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