Organic Chemistry

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Organic Chemistry or Carbon Chemistry is a branch of science that examines the structures, properties, reactions and synthesis pathways of carbon-based compounds.

Carbon compounds are essential for life and the diversity of molecules in the organism. Hair, skin, proteins, genetic materials (DNA, RNA), plants and drugs can be given as examples of organic substances. Besides, there are inorganic substances (calcium, phosphorus, zinc, iron, etc.) that are highly crucial to life. Related to these, the branch of inorganic chemistry conducts research.

Therefore, organic chemistry and inorganic chemistry are a whole for life. Basic knowledge of organic chemistry is required to understand biochemical phenomena.

We are happy to share with you our knowledge of organic chemistry. We believe the students who take Organic Chemistry courses in the relevant associate and undergraduate departments benefit.

1. General Chemistry

1.1. Structure of Matter

1.2. Periodic Table

1.3. Chemical Bonds

1.4. Coordination Chemistry and Metal Complexes

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1. General Chemistry

Contents: Structure of Matter (Atom, Isotopes, Radiation, Electron Shell [Shell, Subshell, Orbital, Bohr’s Model of Atom]), Periodic Table, Chemical Bonds (Intra-Molecular Bondings [Ionic and Covalent] and Inter-Molecular Forces [Hyrdogen bonding, van der Waals forces, Ion-Dipole forces, Hydrophobic interaction), Coordination Chemistry and Metal Complexes (Coordination Compounds, Ligan, Chelation, Artificial Chelators)

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2. Matters and Its Characteristics

Contents: States of Matter (Classification of Matter, Boiling, Melting and Freezing Points, Energy and Energy Units, Energy and Phase Changes, Gases, Solids, Liquids), Interaction of Light with Matter (Emission, Absorption, Transmission, Reflection, Spectroscopy)

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3. Solutions and Biophysical Phenomena

Contents: Solutions (Introduction, Solubility, Dispersion Systems, Hydration, Concentration Units [Percentage, Mass, Molarity, Normality, PPM and PPB, Dilution], Biophysical Phenomena (Osmosis and Osmotic Pressure, Dialysis, Diffusion, Surface Tension, Adsorption)

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4. Acids and Bases

Contents: Introduction, Brønsted & Lowry Acids (BLA) and Bases (BLB), Reaction of a BLA and BLB, Some Properties of Acids and Bases, Lewis Acids and Bases, Acid and Base Strength, Dissociation of Water, The pH Scale, Common Acid-Base Reactions, Buffers

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5. Redox and Organic Reactions, Thermodynamics and Kinetics

Contents: Redox Reactions, Organic Reactions (Substitution reactions, Elimination reactions, Addition reactions, Bond Breaking and Bond Making, Bond Cleavage, Radicals, Carbocations, and Carbanions, Bond Formation), Thermodynamics (Energy and Units of Energy, Thermodynamic Systems, Internal Energy and Enthalpy, Bond Dissociation Energy, Equilibrium Constant and Free Energy Changes, Enthalpy and Entropy), Kinetics of Chemical Reactions (Energy of Activation, Rate Equations, Catalysts, Factors Affecting Reaction Rate, Enzymes)

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6. Carbon (C) Atom

Contents: Hybridization (sp3, sp2, sp, tetrahedral carbon, asymmetry, stereogenic centre, Sigma bond, Pi bond), Conjugated Double Bonds, Aromatic Systems, Carbonyl Group.

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7. Isomerism in Organic Compounds and Stereochemistry

Contents: Isomerism, Constitutional (Structure) isomer (Skeleton, Position, Functional Isomer and Tautomerism), Stereoisomer (Stereochemistry: Chiral, Achiral, Cis- and Trans-Isomer, Enantiomers, Diastereomers, Conformation Isomer, Optical Activity, Racemic Mixtures).

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8. Introduction to Organic Molecules

Contents: Properties, Heteroatom, Bonding patterns, Drawings of organic molecules (Condensate/chain structures, skeleton/ring structures), Functional Groups, Naming Organic Compounds (Trivial names, Systematic nomenclature), IUPAC Numerical Multipliers.

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9. Hydrocarbons-I

Contents:Alkanes (Acyclic alkanes, cycloalkanes, nomenclature of alkanes, alkyl groups, fossil fuels, physical properties, combustion, lipids).

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10. Hydrocarbons-II

Contents:Alkenes and Alkynes (Nomenclature, Cis- and Trans-isomers, Fatty acids-Saturated and Unsaturated, Reactions (Hydrogenation, Hydration)), Aromatic Hydrocarbons (Benzene, Mono-, Di- and Poly-substituted benzenes, Sunscreens, Phenols as Antioxidants ).

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11. Compounds Containing a Single Bond to A Heteroatom-I

Contents:Alkyl Halides (Haloalkanes: Nomenclature (IUPAC system and common names), Physical Properties, Some Alkyl Halides, Polar Carbon-Halogen Bond (substitution and elimination reactions)), Alcohols and Ethers (Introduction, Nomenclature, Physical Properties, Some Alcohols, Ethers and Preparation of Epoxides, Alcohols and Ethers, Reactions of Alcohols, Oxidation and Blood Alcohol Screening, Ethanol Metabolism, Reactions of Ethers).

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12. Compounds Containing a Single Bond to A Heteroatom-II

Contents:Amines (Introduction, Structure and Classification, Nomenclature, Physical Properties, Amines as Base, Reaction of Amines with Acid, Ammonium Salts, Ammonium Salts as Useful Medicine), Thiols and Sulfides (Introduction, Reactions of Thiols, Sulfides, Dimethyl Sulfoxide).

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13. Compounds Containing a Carbonyl Group (C=O)-I

Contents:Aldehydes and Ketones (Nomenclature of Aldehydes and Ketones, Physical Properties, Some Aldehydes and Ketones, Preparation of Aldehydes and Ketones, Reactions of Aldehydes and Ketones (1° Addition of Amines, 2° Addition of Amines, H2O Addition-Hydration, Addiction of Alcohols-Acetal Formation, As Acetals, Cyclic Hemiacetals, Oxidation of Aldehydes)).

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14. Compounds Containing a Carbonyl Group (C=O)-II

Contents:Carboxylic Acids and Esters (Nomenclature, Physical Properties, Some Carboxylic Acids, Acidity of Carboxylic Acids (Reaction with Bases), Reactions Containing Carboxylic Acid and Esters (Ester Formation, Ester Hydrolysis)), Amides (Nomenclature, Physical Properties, Hydrolysis of Amides, Interesting Amines and Amides, Epinephrine and related compounds, Penicillin).

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Edited on: 27 September 2023