Organic Chemistry

Organic Chemistry or Carbon Chemistry is a branch of science that examines the structures, properties, reactions and synthesis pathways of carbon-based compounds.

Carbon compounds are essential for life and the diversity of molecules in the organism. Hair, skin, proteins, genetic materials (DNA, RNA), plants and drugs can be given as examples of organic substances. Besides, there are inorganic substances (calcium, phosphorus, zinc, iron, etc.) that are highly crucial to life. Related to these, the branch of inorganic chemistry conducts research.

Therefore, organic chemistry and inorganic chemistry are a whole for life. Basic knowledge of organic chemistry is required to understand biochemical phenomena.

We are happy to share with you our knowledge of organic chemistry. We believe the students who take Organic Chemistry courses in the relevant associate and undergraduate departments benefit.

1. General Chemistry

1.1. Structure of Matter

1.2. Periodic Table

1.3. Chemical Bonds

1.4. Coordination Chemistry and Metal Complexes

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1. General Chemistry

Contents: Structure of matter (Atom, Isotope, Radioisotope), Electron sheath (Orbital structure and classification), Periodic table (periodicity of the attributes of its elements), Chemical bonds (Ionic, Covalent, Coordinated Covalent, Hydrogen, Van der Waals), Metallic Bonds, Hydrophobic Interaction, Bonds between atoms and molecules.

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2. Matters and Their Features

Contents: The states of matter (gas, liquid, solid), Pure Substances and Mixtures, Homogenous and Heterogenous Systems, Energy and Phase Changes.

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3. Solutions

Contents: Disperse Systems (True Solutions, Colloids, Suspensions), Hydration, Solution Types (According to the physical state of the components, according to the amount of solute (dilute, concentrated), according to the solubility of the solute (unsaturated, saturated, supersaturated), according to the electrical conductivity (electrolyte, non-electrolyte)).

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4. Acids and Bases

Contents: Definition and Properties (Brønsted-Lowry and Lewis Acid-Bases), Acid-Base Reactions with Water, Protolysis, Ka, pKa, Auto-protolysis of water, pH and pOH values, biological importance of pH value, Ampholytes (Amphoteric electrolytes), Indicators, pH measurement methods (Electrometric, Colorimetric), Biological Buffers (Bicarbonate, Phosphate, Hemoglobinate, Oxyhemoglobinate, Proteinate Buffers).

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5. Redox Reactions, Equilibrium in Multiphase Systems, Thermodynamics, Kinetics of Chemical Reactions

Contents: Redox Event (Oxidation and Reduction), Equilibrium in Multiphase Systems (Diffusion, Osmotic Pressure, Dialysis, Surface Tension, Adsorption), Thermodynamics (Energy Forms, Internal Energy and Enthalpy, Free Enthalpy and Entropy), Chemical Reactions Kinetics (Activation Enthalpy, Catalyst), Factors Affecting Reaction Rate), Enzymes.

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6. Carbon (C) Atom

Contents: Hybridization (sp3, sp2, sp, tetrahedral carbon, asymmetry, stereogenic centre, Sigma bond, Pi bond), Conjugated Double Bonds, Aromatic Systems, Carbonyl Group.

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7. Isomerism in Organic Compounds and Stereochemistry

Contents: Isomerism, Constitutional (Structure) isomer (Skeleton, Position, Functional Isomer and Tautomerism), Stereoisomer (Stereochemistry: Chiral, Achiral, Cis- and Trans-Isomer, Enantiomers, Diastereomers, Conformation Isomer, Optical Activity, Racemic Mixtures).

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8. Introduction to Organic Molecules

Contents: Properties, Heteroatom, Bonding patterns, Drawings of organic molecules (Condensate/chain structures, skeleton/ring structures), Functional Groups, Naming Organic Compounds (Trivial names, Systematic nomenclature), IUPAC Numerical Multipliers.

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9. Hydrocarbons-I

Contents:Alkanes (Acyclic alkanes, cycloalkanes, nomenclature of alkanes, alkyl groups, fossil fuels, physical properties, combustion, lipids).

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10. Hydrocarbons-II

Contents:Alkenes and Alkynes (Nomenclature, Cis- and Trans-isomers, Fatty acids-Saturated and Unsaturated, Reactions (Hydrogenation, Hydration)), Aromatic Hydrocarbons (Benzene, Mono-, Di- and Poly-substituted benzenes, Sunscreens, Phenols as Antioxidants ).

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11. Compounds Containing a Single Bond to A Heteroatom-I

Contents:Alkyl Halides (Haloalkanes: Nomenclature (IUPAC system and common names), Physical Properties, Some Alkyl Halides, Polar Carbon-Halogen Bond (substitution and elimination reactions)), Alcohols and Ethers (Introduction, Nomenclature, Physical Properties, Some Alcohols, Ethers and Preparation of Epoxides, Alcohols and Ethers, Reactions of Alcohols, Oxidation and Blood Alcohol Screening, Ethanol Metabolism, Reactions of Ethers).

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12. Compounds Containing a Single Bond to A Heteroatom-II

Contents:Amines (Introduction, Structure and Classification, Nomenclature, Physical Properties, Amines as Base, Reaction of Amines with Acid, Ammonium Salts, Ammonium Salts as Useful Medicine), Thiols and Sulfides (Introduction, Reactions of Thiols, Sulfides, Dimethyl Sulfoxide).

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13. Compounds Containing a Carbonyl Group (C=O)-I

Contents:Aldehydes and Ketones (Nomenclature of Aldehydes and Ketones, Physical Properties, Some Aldehydes and Ketones, Preparation of Aldehydes and Ketones, Reactions of Aldehydes and Ketones (1° Addition of Amines, 2° Addition of Amines, H2O Addition-Hydration, Addiction of Alcohols-Acetal Formation, As Acetals, Cyclic Hemiacetals, Oxidation of Aldehydes)).

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14. Compounds Containing a Carbonyl Group (C=O)-II

Contents:Carboxylic Acids and Esters (Nomenclature, Physical Properties, Some Carboxylic Acids, Acidity of Carboxylic Acids (Reaction with Bases), Reactions Containing Carboxylic Acid and Esters (Ester Formation, Ester Hydrolysis)), Amides (Nomenclature, Physical Properties, Hydrolysis of Amides, Interesting Amines and Amides, Epinephrine and related compounds, Penicillin).

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Edited on: 1 March 2023
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