Physiopathology

The content of Physiopathology is based on the physiology and biochemistry content taken in the previous semesters. It is aimed to teach and give knowledge of organ functions and tissue damage marker tests, alterations, interpretation of results and some laboratory techniques.

Content

Content/s: Aim, Key Questions, Biological Molecules, Biological Materials

Lecture Document: Click to download.

Content/s: Pre-Analytical Phase (Technical and Biological Factors), Analytical Phase (Method selection, method validity, quality control), Post-Analytical Phase (Evaluation of results, reference value, reporting).

Lecture Document: Click to download.

Content/s: Functional distribution of water, presence of biological importance and functions, to meet the need, the electrolyte distribution, losses, water-electrolyte imbalance (dehydration are hiperhidratasyon), the renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system, atrial natriuretic peptide (ANP), Sodium (Na) chlorine (Cl), potassium (K), anion gap, calcium (Ca), phosphorus (P), Magnesium (Mg)

Lecture Document: Click to download.

Content/s: pH, the importance of pH changes and reasons, the buffer system and pH regulation, acid-base imbalance, acidosis (metabolic acidosis, respiratory acidosis), alkalosis (metabolic alkalosis, respiratory alkalosis), compensation mechanisms, mixed acid-base balance disorders, anion gap, bicarbonate and total CO2 , base excess/deficit

Lecture Document: Click to download.

Content/s: Enzymes, enzyme activities, isoenzymes, clinical enzymology, Short history, biological materials, clinical diagnosis routinely used enzymes, ALT, AST, SDH, GLDH, ALP, GGT, LDH, CK, amylase, lipase, PLI, Trypsin (TLI), Aldolase, other enzymes, measurement of enzyme activities.

Lecture Document: Click to download.

Content/s: The metabolic functions of the liver, Hepatocellular Damage (Measurement of Enzyme Activities of ALT, AST, SDH, GLDH), Cholestasis (ALP, GGT).

Lecture Document: Click to download.

Content/s: Liver function tests (Bilirubin metabolism, icterus (Pre-hepatic, hepatic and post-hepatic icterus), bile acids, ammonia, albumin, globulins, glucose, urea, cholesterol, Coagulation Factors), Some laboratory findings to a variety of liver diseases.

Lecture Document: Click to download.

Content/s: Structure and Functions of the Pancreas, Exocrine Pancreas (Pancreatitis, Exocrine Pancreatic Insufficiency (EPI), Pancreatic lipase immunoreactivity (PLI), Trypsin-like immunoreactivity in (TLI), Serum lipase activity, Serum amylase Activity, Other Laboratory Tests).

Lecture Document: Click to download.

Content/s: Endocrine Pancreas (Glucose Metabolism, Hypoglycemia Causes, Hyperglycemia causes (Diabetes mellitus-type 1 and type 2), Laboratory Evaluation of Glucose Metabolism (Blood glucose level, Urine glucose level, Serum Insulin, Fructosamine-FUN, Hemoglobin-HbA1c, Glucose Tolerance Test-Oral and IV)).

Lecture Document: Click to download.

Content/s: Renal Morphology, Renal Functions (Glomerulus and Filtration, Tubule: Reabsorption and Secretion), Tests of Renal Function (Indirect Tests of Glomerular Functions: Creatinine, Urea).

Lecture Document: Click to download.

Content/s: Indirect Tests of Glomerular Function (Cont… Cystatin C, SDMA), Direct Tests of Glomerular Function (Glomerular filtration rate (GFR), creatinine clearance), Tests of Tubule Function (Osmolality, urine density/specific gravity of ions excretion ( fractional excretion-FE)), Tests of Renal Damage (Glomerular Damage: Proteinuria [urine protein: creatinine ratio-UP / C], albuminuria, microalbuminuria, Electrophoresis), Tubule Damage (Urinary enzyme activities, blood/hematuria).

Lecture Document: Click to download.

Content/s: Thyroid Gland (Function, Hormone effects, Indirect Tests, Direct Test, Response Tests, Thyroid Disease (Hypo-, Hyperthyroidism)); Parathyroid Glands (Laboratory Tests, Hypoparathyroidism, Primary and Secondary Hyperparathyroidism).

Lecture Document: Click to download.

Content/s: Adrenal glands, Hypoadrenocorticism, Routine Laboratory Tests, Tests of Basal Adrenocortical Function, Dynamic Tests (ACTH Stimulation Test, Low-Dose Dexamethasone Suppression Test, High-Dose Dexamethasone Suppression Test, Feline Combined High Dose Dexamethasone/ACTH Test, Urinary Cortisol Creatinine Ratios (with High Dose Dexamethasone Test).

Lecture Document: Click to download.

Content/s: Muscle injury, Creatine kinase (CK), Aspartate aminotransferase (AST), Alanine aminotransferase (ALT), Lactate dehydrogenase (LDH), Other Laboratory Tests (Troponin I, Troponin T, Myoglobin)

Lecture Document: Click to download.