Biochemistry-II

Biochemistry II includes hormones and mechanisms of action that enable the living organism to function properly, metabolism of carbohydrates, lipids and proteins, metabolic events/reactions/cycles, basic facts about vitamins and their cofactors in the process of biological events.

Content

Content/s: Definition, properties and classification of vitamins, Fat-soluble vitamins: A, D, E, K.

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Content/s: Water-soluble vitamins: C and B group vitamins

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Content/s: Definition of hormones, Endocrine system, Control Mechanism, Hypothalamus-Pituitary Axis, Intracellular messenger systems, Hormone storage, Regulation of hormone secretion, Cell receptors, Mechanism of hormone action, Classification of hormones, Pituitary gland hormones.

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Content/s:Gastrointestinal Hormones, Thyroid and Parathyroid gland hormones, Pancreas hormones, Adrenal gland hormones, Gonadal Hormones, Pineal gland hormones, Other hormones.

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Content/s: Definition of metabolism and its reactions, Mechanism of biological oxidation, Function of the respiratory chain, Reaction Cycles in Metabolism, Place of Metabolism Reactions in Cell.

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Content/s: Digestion and absorption of carbohydrates, Regulation of blood glucose level, Glucose Metabolism (Definitions and its entry into the cell and its phosphorylation), Glycogenesis, Glycogenolysis, Glycogen Storage Diseases.

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Content/s: Glycolysis, Metabolic fate of pyruvate, Hexose Monophosphate Shunt, Uronic Acid Pathway.

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Content/s: Tricarboxylic Acid Cycle (TCA), Leaks in the TCA cycle, Oxidative phosphorylation, Gluconeogenesis.

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Content/s: Primary functions of lipids, Digestion, absorption and transport of lipids, Blood and body lipids, Pathways of lipids in the liver, Oxidation of fatty acids.

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Content/s: Synthesis of fatty acids, Triglycerides and Glycerophospholipids, Synthesis of Eicosanoids, Synthesis of acidic phospholipids and ether lipids, Synthesis of sphingolipids.

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Content/s: Cholesterol biosynthesis, Lipoprotein metabolism, Ketone Bodies, Fatty liver and Lipotropic factor, Hormonal control of lipid metabolism.

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Content/s: Digestion and absorption of proteins, Amino acid metabolism (General metabolism, transamination, deamination, decarboxylation reactions).

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Content/s: Destruction of the carbon skeleton of amino acids, Ammonia metabolism, Urea synthesis, Protein Synthesis.

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Content/s: Biosynthesis of Purine and Pyrimidine nucleotides, Uric acid catabolism.

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Laboratory Practice Documents

Content/s: Collection of the urine sample, Transport, Physical, Chemical and Microscopic Examination of Urine.

Subheadings: Free-catch, Catheterization, Cystocentesis, colour, appearance/turbidity, density, pH, protein, glucose, ketone, blood, bilirubin, erythrocytes (RBC), leukocytes (WBC), epithelial cells (Renal tubule, transitional, squamous), casts, crystals (Struvite/triple phosphate, calcium oxalate).

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